Bone is a living tissue; the body constantly makes new bone and removes old bone. During early childhood and adolescence, the body produces new bone faster than it removes the old. By about age 30, bones reach their peak mass.
Many lifestyle choices influence bone health. Smoking, alcohol abuse, physical inactivity, a diet low in calcium and vitamin D, and certain drugs can lead to bone loss, while proper nutrition and regular weight-bearing exercise can help strengthen bones. Recent research suggests that certain fats in the diet contribute to bone loss, while others may help new bone to form.
The new study examined 78 16-year-old boys and followed up with them during the next eight years to see what effect different fatty acids had on their bone growth. Higher levels of omega-3 fatty acids were associated with greater bone density at age 22 and with gains in bone density in the spine between ages 16 and 22. DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) seemed to contribute most of the bone-building effect.
“We found that concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids, especially DHA, were positively associated with peak bone mineral density in young men,” the authors said in their conclusion.
Omega-3 fatty acids, including DHA, have powerful anti-inflammatory actions and can be useful in treating conditions like asthma, heart disease, depression, and allergies. Fatty fish are the richest food sources of DHA. Try these tasty options:
Other omega-3 fatty acids are in plant foods like soybeans, walnuts, and flaxseeds. The fatty acids in these foods can be partially converted to DHA, but the conversion may not be enough to have the same beneficial effects as DHA from fish oil.
While some risk factors for osteoporosis can’t be changed—such as gender and ethnicity—diet is one thing that can be controlled. By eating a diet rich in calcium and fatty fish, and getting plenty of physical exercise and vitamin D, young people may be able to build strong bones that can last a lifetime.(Am J Clin Nutr 2007;85:803–7)